MD5 – Red Queens and Increasing Returns


Hello Professor and classmates,

Once I decided on the movie that I wanted to view for the MD4 requirements, which was Minority Report, I immediately went to Netflix and searched for the movie. When I didn’t find the movie on Netflix, I went to YouTube. I searched for the movie there, and I found it, and viewed it digitally.

The current competition that exists between DVDs and videos on demand is an example of Red Queens. The competition that exists between DVDs and videos on demand is similar to the competition that exists between Mozilla Firefox and Internet Explorer in the present, as mentioned by Thornburg in the video clip (Laureate Education, 2009). As discussed by Thornburg, these two technologies are constantly making changes to dominate the other technology (Laureate Education, 2009).

I can say that the same is true about DVDs and videos on demand. For instance, while there are still stores that rent or sell DVDs, there are more convenient ways to access movies via Netflix, or through the use of other online sources. With the ease to access increasing, stores that rent or sell DVDs have to develop ways to keep their customers coming in. Just as Mozilla Firefox and Internet Explorer make constant changes in an attempt to stay dominate, so does the DVD sellers and the individuals who manage the videos on demand.

I believe that DVDs are in the reversal stage of McLuhan’s tetrad. I believe this because I think that due to the videos on demand becoming a popular option, the DVDs are close to being “pushed to the limit of its potential” (Thornburg, 2008b, p. 2). I believe that ultimately, the videos on demand option will totally replace the DVDs. Please see the link below that supports that videos on demand are taking over the well known DVDs.


Laureate Education, Inc. (2009). Emerging and future technology: Red queens. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Thornburg, D. D. (2008b). Emerging technologies and McLuhan’s Laws of Media. Lake Barrington, IL: Thornburg Center for Space Exploration.

Blogs responded to:

Adrian Williams at:

Bianca Johnson at:


MD3 – Rhymes of History Technology

apple-watch-6_1 AT-550 Watch

Hello all,

On the subject of “Rhymes of History” technology, Dr. Thornburg used an example of runners going from village to village to send messages as well as the use of drums to get messages to the people who lived in the villages during ancient times. The use of email, messaging, chat, and other technology in the present, is similar to the ways that messages were carried from village to village during the ancient times. The only difference now is that the availability of the newer technologies make it easier and quicker than a messenger traveling to deliver the messages, and the use of drums to signal that a message is being delivered. Dr. Thornburg made the point that the concept of the tool that is used to accomplish a task is the same, no matter what method or tool is used. For instance, while Dr. Thornburg provided an example of messages being delivered by people, the delivery of messages through the use of technology such as email, instant messaging, chat, etc. produces the same outcome, and that is access to the messages that are being delivered.

Two things that I found interesting that were discussed by Kelly in his video are: our need for transparency, and our co-dependency on technology increasing. Personally, I believe that as technology becomes “smarter” and more advanced, we’ll continue to become more dependent on it. I believe that we are currently very dependent on technology. For instance, we have become used to programming phone numbers in our phones. Now that we can program the information for our contacts, we rarely remember their contact information. However, not having a backup method for recording information can be dangerous. Technology can crash, and if information isn’t backed-up properly, we can lose that information. Further, if traveling with acquaintances separately, we lose track of each other, and our battery is dead on our cell phone, how would we contact our acquaintances? I know that there are technologies that make these scenarios less likely to happen, but in providing an example of our co-dependency on technology, these examples support how much we rely on technology to function in our everyday lives.

With those insights in mind, an example of a technology that represents a rhyme in history is the tactapad. The tactapad caught my interest because it is a technology that never made it to the consumer market (Cohen, 2011). Related to the tactapad are a few other touchscreen technologies that are similar to the ipad, iphones, smartphones, and touchscreen computers. Those technologies are: Fingerworks, which was developed in 1998. When Apple purchased Fingerworks in 2005, that purchase contributed to the development and creation of the iPad and the iPhone (Cohen, 2011). In 1984, the AT-550 Watch was created. Recently, the Apple watch, similar to the AT-550 Watch, was released into the consumer market. See the link below:

The First Multitouch Device and The First Multitouch Screen are two more technologies that were developed in the 80s. These two devices had characteristics that were similar to those of the iPad, which is a very popular technology in the present. The existence of the present day technologies support Mark Twain’s quote used by Thornburg, “History may not repeat itself, but it rhymes a lot” (Laureate Education, 2009).


Cohen, N. (2011). Timeline: A history of touchscreen technology. Retrieved from

Kelly, K. (2007, December). Kevin Kelly on the next 5,000 days of the Web [Speech]. Speech delivered at the EG 2007 Conference, Los Angeles. Retrieved from

Laureate Education, Inc. (2009). Emerging and future technology: Rhymes of history. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Responses to blogs:

Bianca Johnson:

Adrian Williams:

MD4 Blog Post – The Disruptive Power of Second Life


Responses to Blogs:

Adrian Williams
Bianca Johnson

Hello all,

To answer the question, “Why do you think people build virtual worlds in places like Second Life?” I believe people who use Second Life have various reasons as to why they use the technology. Some people use Second Life to advertise business and skills, some people use second life for educational purposes, and some people use second life for personal fulfillment. Using Second Life for the purposes of business and education provides users with networking opportunities. An individual can meet potential business partners and clients by using the technology. Further, in education, users can use Second Life to visit a variety of platforms without leaving the comfort of their own home (Mesko, 2007). Second Life can provide students with the opportunities to explore virtual settings that are close to the settings in which they will work. Students can also interact in activities that they are likely to be performing on their job. Speaking of being able to explore virtual worlds, Second Life can be used for the personal purposes of entertainment. There are various tools available that can be used to promote collaboration and interactivity in all settings.

Independent consultants can use Second Life as a meeting place if they desire to market their products in the virtual setting. The use of the various technologies that are available allow the users to enhance their communication as they are discussing ways to enhance their performance as independent consultants. Individuals seeking to freely explore something new can use second life to fulfill their interest. There are a variety of things that can be used through using Second Life. Specifically focusing on using Second Life for the purposes of education, the technology can really enhance the instructional setting by making learning more interactive and interesting for learners. A disruptive technology is defined as a technology that appears out of nowhere. It is not anticipated, but it creates a new way of thinking about a technological task (Laureate Education, 2009). Second Life is a disruptive technology I think because it is a technology tool that enables individuals to explore various ways of doing things.

Often those various ways of doing things are outside of reality in the present. However, through the exploration of Second Life, individuals may discover ways to make doing things that are outside of reality an actual reality. In his video, Philip Rosedale (2008) talks about how we, as individuals may have various ideas, but are unable to express those ideas due to a lack of materials and resources. However, Second Life enables users to gain access to the needed materials and resources through the virtual world, and once a user has created an idea, they may be able to present their idea through the virtual world and get backing for their idea. Just as with many other conferencing technologies, I believe Second Life displaced the need for face-to-face meetings. When using Second Life for business purposes, it can decrease the expenses of PR value and the cost of tangible materials that are often used in the business world (Virtual Worlds for Business, 2009).

At this time, I can’t imagine that there would be another technology being created to be replaced by Second Life. I believe that Second Life is also a social networking tool, and there are various social networking tools available. Each social networking tool serves its own purpose. Therefore, just as there is a separate purpose for any of the other social networking tools, there is also a separate purpose or purposes for Second Life. As mentioned earlier, one of the social networking benefits of Second Life is that it allows users use various tools as it offers a combination of options for the enhancement of one’s social networking experience. As holographic technologies prepare to emerge, one of the implications of Second Life would be the development and integration of holographic technologies. Please see the links below to retrieve more information on Second Life.
Laureate Education, Inc. (2009). Emerging and future technology: Six forces that drive emerging technologies. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Mesko, B. (2007). How and why use second life for education? Retrieved from
New business horizons (2009). Virtual worlds for business: Benefits of having a second life presence. Retrieved from:
Rosedale, P. (2008). Philip Rosedale on Second Life [Video]. Retrieved from


MD2 Blog Post – Emerging Technologies Tetrad

Blogs I responded to:

Bianca Johnson
Adrian Williams

IPad Air 2 Tetrad


IPad Air Tetrad

The IPad Air 2 is an enhanced technology. It is enhanced in comparison to the predecessor, the IPad Air, by the enhancement of the CPU features and the Graphics Performance. Using the IPad Air 2, the work-performance of users can be enhanced. Internet surfing can also be a more rewarding experience, and the users’ security is enhanced through the option to use a thumbprint to identify themselves when making online purchases. Further, there are two quality cameras on the IPad Air 2, which enhance videos and photos that are produced by the user. A YouTube video comparing and contrasting the IPad Air 2 to the IPad Air can be viewed at this link:

The technologies that the IPad Air 2 brings to mind from the past are the Plato IV Touchscreen Terminal, the FingerWorks, Lemur, and TactaPad. The Plato IV Touchscreen Terminal was created in 1972. It contained a touchscreen panel that allowed students to answer questions by touching the screen to enter their responses (Cohen, 2011). FingerWorks is a technology that was developed in 1998 by John Elias and Wayne Westerman (Cohen, 2011). It consists of a gesture-operated keyboard and the iGesture pad. When Apple bought this technology in 2005, the iPhone and the iPad followed (Cohen, 2011). Lemur is a mulitouch screen that was developed in 2003. Born from this technology was the first transparent multitouch screen technology that contained a digital display that could be touched directly to complete tasks and actions (Cohen, 2011). Finally, the TactaPad is a technology that works in conjunction with a camera, which enables the recognition of hand movements through a touch pad that allows actions to be communicated. The technology never made it to the consumer market (Cohen, 2011). Watch a YouTube video that shows how the drawing feature works along with the TactaPad at this link:

The production of the IPad Air 2 with its enhanced capabilities have made some of the technologies that were once widely used by many, less used by some. While there are some who will continue to use the original IPad Air and laptops, there are some who will opt to upgrade to the IPad Air 2 to take advantage of its enhanced performance and capabilities. As technologies are condensed, and made smaller, the use of technologies such as the laptop will decrease as individuals prefer to use less space and carry less weight. A technology that may replace the IPad Air 2 in the future is the transparent IPad. Find information on the thoughts of a transparent IPad in the future at this link:

Obsolete Technology




As described above, the Tactapad is a touchpad that is used in conjunction with a camera to recognize hand movements that are used to complete tasks. The Tactapad never made it into the consumer market, so there were no other technologies that made this technology obsolete. The Tactapad appears to be a very useful tool to assist individuals who have disabilities. It can enhance the performance of individuals in the instructional setting, or in the workplace. The Tactapad retrieves the First Multitouch Device and The First Multitouch Screen. As evident in the present, the Tactapad reverses the IPad, IPods, and Touchscreen Computers.

References & Websites: (2015). iPad Air 2: Changes in the air. Retrieved from:
Cohen, N. (2011). Timeline: A history of touch-screen technology. Retrieved from:

Elon University/Pew Internet Project. (n.d.). Imagining the Internet: A history and forecast: Back 150 timeline. Retrieved April 7, 2011, from:

Elon University/Pew Internet Project. (n.d.). Imagining the Internet: A history and forecast: Forward 150 timeline. Retrieved April 7, 2011, from:

Itor, J. (2007). TactaPad touchpad. Retreived from:

Martin, J.A. (2013) Can an IPad Air replace a laptop? Retrieved from:

Morrison, J. (2014). Apple iPad Air 2 vs. iPad Air. Retrieved from:

White, C. (2013). Is this transparent iPad in your future? Retrieved from:

Comparing and Contrasting Emergent and Emerging Technologies

Blogs responded to on March 14, 2015



Hello Dr. Green and classmates,

One of the technologies that was mentioned to be an emerging technology that is not very popular in the U.S. at this time is Linux. While it is not too popular in the U.S., it is very popular in other countries, such as Brazil (Thornburg, 2009). In the countries that use Linux heavily, they do not consider Linux to be an emerging technology. They consider Linux to be a mature technology because the technology is widely used. With that information, I believe that whether or not a technology is considered to be emergent depends on how the technology is used in a particular community. According to Thornburg (2009), the successful adoption of technology is dependent upon people knowing about various technologies as options to use in their communities. Now, whether or not they choose to use the technologies is dependent upon their needs, preferences, and desires.

Another example that Thornburg mentions in his article is the use of laptop computers in the classrooms. As suggested by Thornburg, the use of desktops in every class would be useless and expensive because of the number of power watts used for the computer. The use of traditional laptops also use more power than the notebook laptops that are emerging into classrooms in the present (Thornburg, 2009a). An example of an emerging technology that I would like to point out is the use of cell phones and personal devices in the classrooms. The BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) policy is emerging in many school districts and companies where employees and students are encouraged to bring and use their own devices in their professional environments (Bradley, 2011). While the website that I shared focuses on the use of the BYOD policy in business, the use of this policy is becoming popular in schools as well (Chadband, 2012). Please see the links below.


Bradley, T. (2011). PCWorld: Pros and cons of bringing your own device to work. Retrieved from

Chadband, E. (2012). Should school embrace “Bring your own device”? Retrieved from